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The MTF is quite useful because it gives the fraction of remain- ing image contrast as a function of spatial frequency. MTF(4) = 0.5 implies that 50' r of the original image contrast remains for detail that has a spatial fre- quency of 4 cycles per degree. The two were chosen to provide a range of photophore spacing. Non-illuminating portions of the ani- mals are shown as black because this is how they appear against the downwelling light (Johnsen, 2002). In the silhouette chosen, the fins and appendages were ex- tended to examine their effect on visibility. (B) The horned lanterntish Ceratoscopelus maderensis. The resolution of the images is low, and the photophore signals are slightly expanded due to "blooming" of the image at the detector array. Materials and Methods should be incorpo- rated into appropriate figure legends. The Editorial Board requests that regular manuscripts con- form to the requirements set below: those manuscripts that do not conform will be returned to authors for correction before review. (Xerox copies of photographs are not acceptable for review pur- poses.) Please include an electronic copy of the text of the manu- script. It is unclear how the proboscis generates the pressure necessary to propel the tooth into prey.

Imcigex examined Images of the ventral bioluminescence of two counter- illuminating species were used: ( 1 ) the enoploteuthid squid Abralia veranyi (Ruppell, 1844) (eye-flash squid), and (2) the myctophid fish Ceratoscopelns maderensis (Gunther. The backgrounds were set to a brightness equal to the average brightness of the counterilluminating animal (minus the fins, arms, and tentacles in the case of the squid). In addi- tion, although Counterillumination is more stable than other bioluminescent signals, the images are static representations of potentially variable light emission. reranvi was not lit in the studied image (Herring et til., 1992). nuulerensis, all the ventral photophores were emitting during the image expo- sure. Label the disk with the name of the tirst author and the name and version of the wordprocessing software used to create the tile. One pos- sibility is that the muscles of the proboscis contract the fluid-filled lumen to generate pressure.

Individuals and institutions who are subscribers to the journal in print or are members of the Marine Biological Laboratory Corporation may now activate their online subscriptions. Materials and Methods General principles of image transfer The perceived image of a counterilluminating animal viewed from a distance is affected by three factors: absorp- tion and scattering by the water and the acuity of the viewer's eye. Larvae were maintained at 25 C as described in detail In Miller and Hadfield (1986). Whether horseshoe crabs normally express tidal rhythms throughout the year, but these are not observed, or whether the rhythms we observed were initiated by the longer photoperiod or the increased temperature, remains to be elucidated. Online readers may want to sign up for the e TOC (electronic Table of Contents) service, which will deliver each new issue's, table of contents via e-mail. lochmoiles determined on the basis of its chloro- Alexandrium minutum Gymnodin/um catenatum Prorocentrum micans Tetraselmis sp Figure 3. Our finding of lectin-mediated chemical recognition and physiological modulation between symbiotic dinoflagellates and a coral is a novel one. (Equation 3) where image Hn .,, is the perceived image and OTF WJIt .,. Previous inves- tigations of these symbionts led to the presumption that they are marine species of the genus Chlorella, and that they are therefore related to similar algae associated with freshwater animals such as hydras i 1 * and sponges, whence the designation "zoochlorel- lae." But Chorella is a paraphyletic taxon; i.e., the species within it do not have a common origin. Lewis and Gisele Muller-Parker report on a phylogenetic analysis of 18S r DNA and the rbc L gene, which are encoded, respectively, by the nu- cleus and plastid of green symbionts isolated from Anthopleura elegantissima. ZIMMER PAMELA CLAPP HINKLE CAROL SCHACHINGER VICTORIA R. Japan University of North Carolina Greensboro University of Southern California Kewalo Marine Laboratory, University of Hawaii Institute of Neurobiology, University of Puerto Rico Tokyo Institute of Technology. BIOLOGICAL BULLETIN is indexed in bibliographic services including Index Medicus and MED- LINE. Printed on acid free paper, effective with Volume 180, Issue 1, 1991. Saburo Hosaka, a chairman of the Establishment of Tropical Marine Ecolog- ical Research (ETMER), and the staff of Akajimu Marine 86 K. and OTF eve are the optical transfer functions of the water and eye respectively. Thus, the identity of the green symbionts within Antlioplenm and their relationship with freshwater algae are in question. The results suggest that these symbionts are members of a well-supported but highly divergent clade comprising species of small, spherical green algae both symbiotic and free-living which are distinct from species of Chorellci in freshwater. GIBSON LAURA RELTER The Whitney Laboratory, University of Florida Grice Marine Laboratory, College of Charleston California Institute of Technology Georgia State University University of Chicago Marine Biological Laboratory ENSR Marine & Coastal Center. Japan National Institute for Basic Biology, Japan Marine Biomed. of Texas Medical Branch University of Maine, Orono University of California, Santa Barbara University of New England, Biddeford, Maine University of California, Los Angeles Managing Editor Assistant Managing Editor Staff Editor Subscription & Advertising Administrator Published by MARINE BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY WOODS HOLE, MASSACHUSETTS VOLUME 207, No. Subscriptions and similar matter should be addressed to Subscription Administrator. Subscription includes both print and online journals. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to THE BIOLOGICAL BULLETIN, Marine Biological Laboratory, 7 MBL Street, Woods Hole, MA 02543. receptor and ion chan- nel targets, and drug design: 50 million years of neuropharmacology. KOIKE ET AL Science Laboratory ( AMSL) for access to their collection of specimens. Lirdwitayaprasit Thaithaworn, Chulalongkorn University, and Dr. Setsuko Sakamoto, National Research Institute of Fisheries and En- vironment of Inland Sea, for supplying cultures. Published since 1897 by the Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, The Biological Bulletin is one of America's oldest peer-reviewed scientific journals. Universit\ of Htiwtiii, 41 Ahui Si., Honolulu, Hawaii 96813; anil ^Department of Integrative Biology. To examine larval responses in this setting, individual larvae were teth- ered in a small flume with flow simulating water velocity relative to a freely swimming larva, and their responses to realistic temporal patterns of cue encounter were video- taped. Specif- ically, how rapidly do larvae respond behaviorally when they encounter the settlement cue? sibogae require an exposure to cue of 1.5-2.0 h to develop a strong adhesion to a substratum (Koehl and Hadfield. Of the animals that ap- peared stably synchronized to the LD cycle (3 of 6). It is anticipated that the appointment will commence July 1, 2006. The number of motile cells and non-motile cells (a total of more than 400 cells) in more than six observation fields (X75) of the images were counted. The journal is aimed at a general readership, and especially invites articles about those novel phenomena and contexts characteristic of intersecting fields. Competent larvae quickly ceased swimming in cue filaments and resumed swimming after exiting filaments. competent larvae swam along straight paths in all directions at 0.2 cm s ', whereas in water conditioned by P. 2004) and of nearly 6 h for metamorphosis to follow (Hadfield. Since larvae swimming or drifting above a coral reef are never likely to be in concentrations of coral cue long enough for morphogenetic induction to occur, we wanted to learn whether behavioral changes that bring about settlement from the water column occur more rapidly. all were significantly more active during the night than during the day. While the factors associated with the differences in behavior observed between the stud- ies remain to be determined, it is clear from our study that LD cycles do affect both circadian and circatidal rhythms in the laboratory. The Marine Biological Laboratory is located in Woods Hole, MA, a village rich with scientific inquiry and discovery as well as one of the most beautiful locations on Cape Cod. Cell growth in the wells was estimated by daily monitoring of in vivo chlorophyll a fluorescence (EX 485 40 nm, EM 645 40 nm) using a microplate fluorescence reader ( FL600, Bio-tek). -\ v / rw^HBk iww H 111 F\ ^l U^Sm ASBh*..'- , i OOPSfff * TFVsf^fe * * Figure 4.

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